Relationship of Psychology and other Sciences-
Relationship between Psychology and Physiology
Physiology studies physical activities and structure. It is the science of physical body. It studies respiration, circulation of blood glandular and muscular activities etc. History of prescientific psychology clearly indicates the contribution of physiology to Psychology. Relationship is same as that of mind-body being two sides of a coin. So is the relation between psychology and physiology.
Physiology studies bodily processes and various mental processes like learning, reasoning etc. determined and controlled by bodily organs. thinking, perceiving, There is relationship of brain structure and behavior. Unless we understand body, brain and nervous system we cannot study physiological processes of individual. Mind is the function of brain. Wundt-Pavlov are physiologists who have increased the field of psychology with their contributions in physiology.
Relation : –
1. Mental Processes depend on body and its parts.
2. Due to change in activities of body parts there may be change in mental processes. For example, brain damage – Amnesia. T. B. – Pessimistic and Lazy.
3. Some time due to change in mental process there is change in bodily process For example, Motivation.
(1) Field of psychology is mind. Field of Physiology is body.
(2) Outlook of Psychology is individual process. Physiology deals with whole individual. Outlook of Physiology is a bodily processes and it deals with different parts of body.
(3) Psychology uses experimental method and Physiology uses observation method.
Due to close relation of physical and mental activities, a separate branch of Psychology known as Physiological Psychology has been established for the psychological study of physical processes. According to Hoffding Physiological Psychology is based upon the close connection of mental life with organic life in general. A special branch of physiological psychology is known as Psycho-Physics. In it the different physical activities are quatitatively studied. Psychology and Physiology are independent, yet they are closely related.
Relationship between Psychology and Philosophy
From the days of Plato and Aristotle, Psychology had an intimate relationships with philosophy. For greek philosophers Psychology was the study of mind. They defined it as the science of soul. Though they used unscientific and philosophical methods for the study and analysis of Psychological processes; they definitely contributed to the growth and development of psychology in their own way.
Philosophy looks to facts and values in a systematic whole. To look a whole is the Philosophical attitude. Every thing is seen in things as universal context. Philosophy
is based on Psychology- for example, what is origin of knowledge-requires psychological explanation. Philosophy is made up of two words-Philos meaning Desire + Sophia meaning knowledge–It is the knowledge of whole universe and man. Metaphysics, Ethics, Logic, Aesthetics are the fields studied in Philosophy.
1. The aim of Philosophy is to gain knowledge – but the process is psychological and man is the link.
2. Philosophy desires to get knowledge about soul to know about Soul we have to explore mind.
3. Psychology is science of mind. What is mind ? What is the nature of mind is explained by philosophy.
Relationship between Psychology and Education
Education modifies the behavior. It brings such changes in the behavior which are for his mind. In the past the education of a child meant the filling up of the child’s mind with stuffed knowledge. In the present-times, education is not taken in the sense of simple information.
The aim is to help child in the growth and development of child. It is a phase of social process that is fostered by society for the purpose of fitting its members for life in the group. Modern Education aims at the harmonious development of the personality of the child.
The new meaning attached to education in the present times is due to an enhanced knowledge of Psychology which we possess today. Psychology informs us that the needs of childhood are different from those of adulthood or manhood. Education of the child should also be in keeping with his needs. Education and Psychology are related. Both are concerned with behaviour. To bring effective changes in the behavior through Education, it is necessary that Child’s emotional, intellectual and social make-up is studied.
- “Education has to depend on Psychology finding for what is done and how it is done.’ -B.N.Jha
- “Psychology has made a distinct contribution to education through its analysis of pupil’s potentialities and differences. It has also contributed directly to a knowledge of pupil’s growth and maturation during the school years”. -Davis
- Educational psychology covers the entire range of behavior and personality as related to education. –Skinner
Many important discoveries of Psychology have direct application to the educational process. Psychologists in this field conduct research on ways to improve educational curriculum, methods of teaching, effective timetable, school administration, application of learning and teaching methods and often help train teachers. work in elementary or secondary schools, dealing primarily with School psychologists individual children, teachers and parents in an effort to evaluate and resolve learning and emotional problems. They often administer and interpret personality, interest and ability tests.
Relationship between Psychology and Sociology
Sociology is the science of society i.e. that of social relationships. It studies institutions, traditions, culture, group behavior. Fields of psychology and sociology are very close to each other. Thouless. “The aim of psychology is to obtain which we may be able to understand and predict the behavior rules by and thought of human beings.” Sociology studies principles underlying the function, growth and functioning of different kinds of political, social, economic, religious, primary, secondary groups.
Sociology is interested in studying the observable characteristics of the group structure and functions. It is, however, not interested in the individual motives or of the group members. experiences Psychology deals with individual organism. Several individuals form Psychology also studies the individual’s behavior in relation to the a group. group. Study of group behavior also becomes necessary for psychologists. Sociology helps psychology to understand and study group behavior and the influence of group and society upon the activities and psychological functioning of its individual members.
Sociology in special, gives aid to Psychology just as psychology gives special aid to Sociology. –Maclver